Network protocols for anyone who knows a programming language

The network stack is a complex system that performs various tasks to ensure reliable transmission and smooth operation of the internet. It handles addressing of billions of active nodes, routes packets through the network, and reassembles them correctly even if they arrive out of order. The network routing process involves bucket-brigading or passing the data from one router to the next, bringing it closer to its destination with each hop. The Internet Protocol (IP) handles addressing, while the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) ensures up-to-date routing table information across routers. To accommodate large data transfers, packets are used rather than transmitting entire files, and TCP handles packet reassembly using sequence numbers. TCP also employs congestion control mechanisms to prevent network overload. In the event of packet loss, TCP triggers retransmission based on duplicate acknowledgments. Ethernet, a widely used physical layer protocol, breaks data into packets and uses analog electrical signals for transmission.

To top